What Is New
Log of Changes and Improvements to Sierra Chart
This list contains major items of development, items which are notable, and changes and additions which users need to be informed about.
This is not a comprehensive changes and additions log. It only represents less than 25% of the actual development performed every day. There are not version notes for each version. The main Sierra Chart documentation is updated as needed relating to the changes and additions.
In addition to the below listed items for each version, there are also various low-level improvements, issues resolved, and small additions that a release has which are not listed.
1232 Release Date: 2015-02-14
- The change to calculate real-time volume for TD Ameritrade index symbols has been removed because it did not work properly. There are no plans to add this capability because it cannot work reliably with TD Ameritrade.
- Sierra Chart no longer uses a different symbol for Historical Daily charts when a Trading service does not provide historical Daily data. The symbol mapping is now handled at a lower level. When updating to this version, the symbols for historical charts will be changed to the standard symbol used by the particular Trading service you are using. New historical Daily data files will be created and downloaded.
1230 Release Date: 2015-02-10
- Additional Chart Linking options added. However, we are still working on an abnormal shutdown issue when linking Studies when using the Spreadsheet study that needs to be solved.
- Additional improvements with the Volume by Price study. Documentation updates to follow shortly.
- With the TD Ameritrade trading service, real-time volume is now calculated in real-time for index symbols which do not normally provide real-time volume.
- Corrected a problem with the evaluation of Simple Alert Formulas.
1228 Release Date: 2015-02-03
- New fast simple and reliable File Open and Save windows have been developed for New/Open Historical Chart, New/open Intraday Chart, Save As.
- Added new export command for chart bars: Edit >> Export Bar Data to Text File.
- Corrected a problem with the Volume by Price study arising in the previous prerelease relating to adjusting drawn volume profiles on the chart.
- Support for the : operator in spreadsheet formulas where formula results which return a cell reference can be used with the : operator.
1226 Release Date: 2015-01-28
- Corrected a problem from the prior release where the Bid and Ask prices would be the same when using a Data or Trading service in Sierra Chart which uses DTC Protocol.
- Renamed sc.GetChartDrawing to sc.GetUserDrawnChartDrawing in ACSIL. Renamed sc.DeleteLineOrText to sc.DeleteACSChartDrawing.
- The Point and Figure XO Graph Draw Type is now supported with Reversal bars. This can be selected through Chart >> Chart Settings >> Graph Draw Type.
- Added the ability to include weekend bars with the Include Columns with No Data option for historical Daily charts. Currently this is implemented as when Include Columns with No Data is enabled for the chart, Saturday and Sunday bars are included in the chart. A separate option will be added.
- Corrected a problem with the completion processing when getting trade orders from OEC. This was due to a change from OEC.
- Corrected a problem where when opening a saved Chartbook, the last active chart at the time the Chartbook was saved, may not be set as the active chart.
1225 Release Date: 2015-01-22
- s_UseTool::Tool is no longer supported. Use of this member has been out of date for more than a year at least. Use s_UseTool::DrawingType instead.
- Completely new implementation of persistent variables for ACSIL. There are now functions for getting and setting persistent variables. There are 4000 persistent variables supported for each datatype (32-bit integer, 64-bit integer, float, double, SCDateTime). Refer to sc.GetPersistentInt. Documentation is still in the process of being written.
- Corrected problem with multistage downloads for IQ Feed and Barchart Data Services where when less than 5 to 15 days of data is downloaded, it would be multistage and a reload of the chart would occur when the historical data download is done. The reload no longer occurs and only a single stage download is done when the less than 5 to 15 days of data needs to be downloaded.
- Removed all "Unused" members from the ACSIL SC structure. The result of this is that any study that depends upon the ACSIL trading functions needs to be compiled for version 1225 or higher. A notice will be given in the Message Log indicating this. Studies that do not use the ACSIL trading functions will not be affected but they are recommended to be recompiled at some point in the future.
- Fixed issue with chart keyboard shortcuts not always being processed based upon which window had the focus.
1224 Release Date: 2015-01-14
- Increased the number of OCO Groups for Attached Orders to 8.
- Corrected problem with the bar starting time under certain conditions when using the Include Columns with No Data option and Chart >> Chart Settings.
- When Global Settings >> Chart Trade Settings >> Show Limit/Stop in Trade Mode Box is enabled, then the order type, whether Stop or Limit, is displayed at the top left of the chart or Trade DOM when Trade >> Trading Chart DOM On is enabled and hovering over the one of the Buy or Sell columns. This indicates the order type that will be submitted when left clicking.
- Added Global Settings >> General Settings >> Sort CW Menu by Chart Number to sort the windows on the CW menu by chart number.
- Added Window >> Goto Chart Number.
- The System Notification Window is now smaller and the complete message can be viewed in your web browser.
1222 Release Date: 2015-01-07
- Corrected a problem which arose in the prior version when connecting to Rithmic where the connection would be disconnected when a market data request is made. This is now resolved.
- Added support for the Continuous Futures Contract feature with the TeleTrader Data Service. To use the Continuous Futures Contract Feature requires that rollover rule settings have been defined for a particular futures symbol. We have done this for the Eurex DAX. For additional symbols, contact Sierra Chart Support on the Support Board. There is no support for TeleTrader continuous futures contracts symbols themselves.
1221 Release Date: 2015-01-01
- When using the Reverse command on the Trade Window or the equivalent menu command from the Chart Trading shortcut menu, the order quantity of the market order will be equal to the amount to flatten the existing Trade Position plus the amount of the current Order Quantity setting on the Trade Window. For example, if the current Position is -3 and the Order Quantity setting on the Trade Window is 2, a Buy market order will be sent with a quantity of 5. When it is filled, the Position will be +2. Previously, when using Reverse, the Order Quantity will be equal to 2 times the quantity of the existing Trade Position. This change makes Reverse the same as the functioning of SupportReversals in Automated trading.
- With an automated trading system, when the SupportReversals automated trading management variable is set to TRUE/Yes, then when a reversal occurs, a market order will always be used to flatten the existing position. A new position will be established to the order quantity specified by the BuyEntry or SellEntry order action.
- Continued improvements with New Spreadsheets.
1220 Release Date: 2014-12-24
- Server-side OCO for Rithmic is supported for all broker/trading services now.
- Added a new Labels option to Chart Calculator tool named ABDiff Volume. This calculates the difference between the total Ask Volume and Bid Volume across the number of bars that the Chart Calculator line spans.
- Corrected a problem with recent changes to the Parallel Rays tool.
- When connecting to FXCM Trading, there is a separate connection for market data and a separate connection for trading. The market data is now provided by the Sierra Chart FXCM data feed. In most cases this will improve market data feed performance and eliminate any delays with trading related messages.
- A new Text Coloring Method option has been added to Numbers Bars: "Based on Dominant Side Volume Percentage".
- With studies that change at earlier bars other than the last bar, like the Zig Zag and Swing High/Low studies, when using the Spreadsheet studies, the latest and correct values from the study are now fully outputted to the Spreadsheet. Previously this was not happening with the New Spreadsheets and also to some extent with Old Spreadsheets. The result of this is that the data on the Spreadsheet for a particular study would not match up with the actual values during chart updating. This is now resolved.
- Added the spreadsheet function: TEXT(Value, Format).
1217 Release Date: 2014-12-12
- The Parallel Rays drawing tool has been modified so that all line extensions are done using the chart coordinate system rather than integer pixel coordinates. This ensures that the lines remain stable with changes with chart scaling. However, this tool and Rays cannot work properly on logarithmic scales because a straight linear line does not fit properly into a logarithmic scale.
- Corrected a printing issue with Chart Drawings where the drawing may not appear due to a coordinate limitation that was implemented many years ago to prevent triggering stability issues in the underlying operating system.
- Corrected a problem where there could be conditions where when a historical daily data download is performed, it may stop an Intraday chart from updating for the same symbol. Although you would continue to see the price box on the right side of the chart move. This was a very rare issue and in most cases when you notice this kind of problem, it was not the result of this problem but for another reason. For example, OEC users will notice a problem just like this but for the reason that the OEC symbol limit has been exceeded.
- The DTC Protocol version number has been increased 5. All the DTC messages and field names have been reviewed and changes were made to make them as logical, consistent, and compact as possible. The DTC documentation will be updated as soon as possible. Any existing Server or Client using DTC will continue to work with this version but a recompile will require naming changes to comply with the changes made.
- All brokers specific CQG connections now support FIX for trading because it has proven to be more reliable than the new CQG Web API for trading.
1216 Release Date: 2014-12-09
- Small change to CQG Web API interface where if the iinitial trade order snapshot data is not fully received, order entry is still possible.
- Corrected trade order rounding issue in CQG Web API interface.
- With the recent changes to the CQG trading platform service integration, one area that has been inconsistent and the source of some issues is the Fill Execution Service ID field for orders fills. In some cases it was not being set correctly or inconsistently between FIX and the Web API. This affects the fills in the Trade Activity Log. The most noticeable effect of this is duplicate order fills which affects Profit/Loss calculations. This has now been resolved going forward. It will not affect existing order fills already logged. There is now a common unique Fill Execution Service ID which works for both CQG FIX and the Web API. The result of these changes is you can have duplicate fills on the day of updating to this version or higher.
- Various low-level improvements and issues resolved with New Spreadsheets.
- Added support for Apply button on the Study Settings window when opened from the Chart Studies window.
- Corrected a problem with the writing of historical Daily data to the data file, arising in a recent version, where numbers that contain a zero immediately to the right of a decimal point would not be properly formatted and instead be formatted as integers. This is now resolved. If you notice any data errors in a Historical Daily chart, it is possible it could be due to this particular problem. To correct the data, select Edit >> Delete All Data and Download.
1213 Release Date: 2014-11-18
- Changed CQG WebAPI interface to resubscribe to Trade Orders and Positions when data is re-requested for better reliability.
- Change to both FIX and web API CQG interfaces clients to use same unique identifier for order fills.
- No longer using a 1 minute backup timer to identify Trade Orders as Canceled and instead always rely upon a definite notification from all of the connected Trading services upon the completion of receiving all Open orders to know that received all Open orders. The backup timer could be a problem in the case where a Trading service takes more than a minute to send Open orders.
- Corrected problem which occurs under certain conditions with Profit/Loss calculations within chart when converted to a common currency. This issue arose from a recent release.
- Corrected an issue where there would be a file error when using sc.SaveChartImageToFile in the ACSIL.
- When copying horizontal parallel lines from a short timeframe per bar chart to a higher timeframe per bar, the mapping is managed better, so that the drawings will appear even if they only normally span one bar in the destination chart.
- The list of Services and Data/Trade Service Settings window is now in alphabetical order.
- New Spreadsheet function added: AVERAGE_IGNOREZEROS.
- Added the ability to flip Lines, Fans and Parallel Lines Chart Drawings horizontally or vertically. This can be done from the Chart Drawing shortcut menu or from the Anchor tab of the Chart Drawing Properties window.
- Corrected a problem with the conversion of TRUE and 1 values from the Buy/Sell columns to the correct values for placement of arrows on the chart when using the Spreadsheet System studies.
1210 Release Date: 2014-11-11
- Orders entered in Trade Simulation Mode from a chart will not be evaluated for a fill if the simulation account number is changed to a different simulation account number than they were submitted with.
- The ACSIL data structure member s_UseTool::UseRelativeValue has been renamed to s_UseTool::UseRelativeVerticalValues. Studies which use this structure member will function properly. However, when they are recompiled they will need to have this member renamed.
- In the case of the CQG Trading platform service, support for trading was added to work through the CQG web socket connection. There was a problem where the protocol definition file from CQG did not work with their Live server. As we understand this is now all resolved. In this version, support for trading through the CQG web socket connection has been restored since it was removed after it was originally released.
- Corrected a problem when reading a significantly older Chartbook where an invalid field code error would occur. This is now resolved.
- Added a new setting: Chart >> Chart Settings >> Advanced Settings >> Load Order Fills for Current Day Only. When this option is enabled, the default, then order fills are only loaded for the date of the last day in the chart. The purpose of the setting is to ensure an accurate Daily Profit/Loss calculation by avoiding the matching of order fills for the current trading day with fills from prior days, when there are missing fills, which can affect the Daily Profit/Loss calculation.
- Corrected a problem with the Continuous Futures Contract feature where under certain conditions which are not common, a chart may not update in real time after historical data has been downloaded for the chart. This could occur if historical data was downloaded and then it was detected the historical data need to be downloaded again for that chart when the original historical data downloads were all complete.
- Added new study: Volume and Price Threshold Alert.
1209 Release Date: 2014-11-05
- Added support for the CQG Trading service for trading functionality to work through the web socket connection. The FIX connection is no longer used with the "CQG Trading" Service in Sierra Chart. If you still want to use the FIX connection, that can be selected by choosing the "CQG FIX Trading" service within Global Settings >> Data/Trade Service Settings. For further information, refer to this thread.
- Support for historical tick by tick data from Rithmic. This is for only the most recent 10 to 15 minutes of historical data. For further information refer to Historical Tick by tick Data Instructions.
- Various improvements and issues resolved with New Spreadsheets.
- Corrected a problem with zero values being set into the destination study when using the Study/Price Overlay study when a positive Graphical Displacement is used on the source study.
1206 Release Date: 2014-10-28
- Updated TransAct Trading service bridge.
- Fixed order ID handling issue with CQG.
- Volume at Price Threshold Alert study has been added.
- Z-Score study has been added.
- Corrected problem with New Spreadsheets where not equal comparison(<>) between 0 an empty cell would evaluate to true. This will now evaluate to false. However, in generally need to be careful with the types you are comparing to. For example, a text string, even if it is empty, would be regarded as not being a numeric zero.
- Updated the connection to OEC to use a new SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) version required by the FIX server.
1204 Release Date: 2014-10-22
- Corrected a problem with the Clean Chart study collection where it would cause an error when applied to the chart. This is now resolved.
- In a recent release, the code for the Numbers Bars-Old study has been removed. This unexpectedly cause two problems. One problem is the Message Log would display this message: Study: 298 | Exception occurred while calling study function.. The Message Log will no longer display this message and the study will be listed as (unknown name) in the Studies to Graph list.
- Updated the connection to LMAX to use at a minimum TLS 1.0 or higher. This resolves a connection problem that was reported to the LMAX trading server.
1202 Release Date: 2014-10-16
- Improved the processing of TT FIX and AMP TT Net Position Reports processing so in the case where the Start of Day Position Report is interleaved with the current day order fill Position Reports, the Trade Position Quantity calculation still remains correct. We have discovered where the server can send these two category of Position Reports interleaved with each other and this causes a resetting of the Trade Position data back to zero while it is being calculated resulting in an inaccurate Trade Position Quantity for a symbol.
- Worked around an apparent operating system bug affecting the standard period decimal point character from being used where a comma is set as the decimal point delimiter in the operating system. For more information, refer to this Support Board thread.
- The code for the Numbers Bars-Old study has been removed. You need to remove it from the chart and use the new Numbers Bars study. The study will not have a name in the Analysis >> Studies >> Studies to Graph list. Refer to the Numbers Bars study documentation.
1200 Release Date: 2014-09-26
- There are three new Chart / Trade DOM columns that can be added: Current Traded Total Volume, Current Traded Bid Volume, Current Traded Ask Volume. All of these accumulate current traded volume until the values are cleared. These values are cleared independently from the Recent Bid/Ask Volume. The values can be cleared using the Trade Window Menu, Context Menu (right click over values), or you can set up a ToolBar button or keyboard shortcut. These new columns have custom Text Colors that can be set through Global Settings >>Graphic Settings.
- Corrections to various small issues reported on Support Board relating to recent and past development.
- Added support for text-to-speech alerts. The interface for this is in Global Settings >> General Settings >> Alerts.
- Continued performance improvements to the New Spreadsheets.
- Improvements to the management of historical data downloading for Continuous Futures Contract charts.
- The Value On High and Value On Low Draw Styles are now offset so they do not cover the High and Low of a chart bar, respectively.
- Added support for the FXCM FIX Trading service to support multiple trading accounts. Multiple trading account numbers can be separated by a comma in Global Settings >> Data/Trade Service Settings >> Connection Details >> Account. This feature requires further testing by Sierra Chart before it should be relied on.
- In the case of Target and Stop Attached Orders, when Sierra Chart is disconnected from the trading server and becomes connected again, and either the Target or Stop order is no longer working, its sibling, the other Target or Stop, will be canceled. This is for safety reasons. This functionality has always existed but only if the other order was reported as filled, would it sibling be canceled. Now if the other order is either filled or canceled, then its sibling will be canceled as well.
1196 Release Date: 2014-09-26
- There is a new option in the ZigZag study: "Text Label Offset Specified As" which will allow you to specify a Percentage or Tick Size. The "Text Label Offset" will specify the magnitude like it always has.
- Corrected a problem with the processing of the initial market depth data from the CQG Trading Platform service.
- Corrected a problem with recent changes to the Study/Price Overlay study where Fill Blanks with Last Value may not always work.
- Reduced CPU usage for the bridge program used for the Rithmic Trading Platform service.
- There is a new column in the Alerts Log which which displays the Alert Source. The Alerts Log tab column order can also be changed by dragging the column headers.
1191 Release Date: 2014-09-16
- Corrected a problem where the historical daily data which is needed for the latest futures contract in an Intraday chart which is set to a Continuous Futures Contract chart using a volume rollover or is back adjusted, would not be kept up-to-date if there was no Historical Daily chart open for the current futures contract.
- Corrected a problem from a recent release where Study Collection files would say they require a newer version of Sierra Chart. This is now resolved.
- The Study/Price Overlay Study now supports drawing beyond the last bar on the destination chart when overlaying a study from the source chart which is shifted forward through the Displacement setting.
- Added the following new Spreadsheet functions: TRUNCHOUR, TRUNCMIN, TRUNCSEC.
1188 Release Date: 2014-09-09
- Added support for server-side OCO and bracket orders for the OEC Trading service.
- The Color Bar Based on Alert Condition study has a new Draw Style Offset Type input to offset non-color bar styles based upon a Percentage or Number of Ticks according to the chart Tick Size.
- Corrected a problem arising in a recent release where the Evaluate on Bar Close option was not being followed in the evaluation of Simple Study and Chart Alerts.
- Server-side OCO orders are now available to Rithmic Optimus futures users.
- Corrected a problem when using the Study Subgraph Fill Draw Styles where the value labels would be referring to one bar forward instead of the last bar displayed.
- Corrected a problem from the prior release where the Chart Values tool would become active when left clicking when using the Pointer tool and the Chart Values tool setting Always on When Using Other Tools is enabled.
1185 Release Date: 2014-09-03
- Corrected a problem with the loading of historical Daily data from the data file. Some recent days of data may not have been loaded. This problem arose with file I/O changes that are being made in the software to support other operating systems.
- Corrected a problem from a recent release where real-time stock/equities data would not have been received when using the Sierra Chart Real-Time and Historical Exchange Data Feed.
- Corrected a problem with the downloading of historical data from the Sierra Chart Historical Data Service where download requests may have been rejected indicating they do not contain a two digit year even if the symbol did have a two digit year.
1183 Release Date: 2014-09-02
- Rewrote the Chaikin Money flow study.
- Historical Intraday data for Rithmic is now provided by the Sierra Chart Historical Data Service except for the most recent 10 minutes of historical data. Historical tick by tick data is provided with Sierra Chart service package 5. With package 3, the timeframe of the historical Intraday data records is 2 seconds minimum. This historical Intraday data provides Bid Volume and Ask Volume.
- Corrected a problem with the handling of server side bracket orders for IB and CTS T4, where Moved to Breakeven and trailing processing for child Stop orders would begin to occur when the parent order is modified, even if it has not been filled.
1178 Release Date: 2014-08-25
- Corrected a problem from version 1177 with DTC protocol data structures which would affect the market data snapshot and historical data downloading. Version 1177 has been locked out.
- The Vertical Line Tool configuration window now allows alerts to be configured.
- The Alert Once and Blink Once Per Bar Options are made more reliable for Chart Drawings.
- Alerts are re-allowed if a Chart Drawing is moved or adjusted. This does not apply if Only Trigger Once is enabled and was triggered.
- The following ACSIL variables and functions related to the computer system Pointer have been renamed. The documentation for these has been updated as well.
- MouseEventType >> PointerEventType
- ReceiveMousePointerEvents >> ReceivePointerEvents
- SC_MOUSE_DOWN >> SC_POINTER_BUTTON_DOWN
- SC_MOUSE_MOVE >> SC_POINTER_MOVE
- SC_MOUSE_UP >> SC_POINTER_BUTTON_UP
- Stop orders as the main order for server-side Bracket orders can now be used when using CTS T4.
1174 Release Date: 2014-08-14
- Added support for CTS T4 FIX Trading service server-side bracket orders. Only Limit and Market if Touched orders can be used as the parent/main order. Market and Stop orders are not supported for server side bracket orders. If a Market or Stop order is used as the parent order, the initial management of the bracket order will be performed by Sierra Chart.
- Added new option: Global Settings >> Tool Settings >> Prompt When Deleting All Chart Drawings .
- Added a ToolBar button for Clear Recent Bid and Ask Volume. The command Clear Recent Bid and Ask Volume can also be accessed from the shortcut menu by right clicking on the price scale. This command only applies to the Recent Bid and Ask Volume columns on the Chart/Trade DOM.
1173 Release Date: 2014-08-09
- Added the following ACSIL functions: void * sc.AllocateMemory(int Size) , sc.FreeMemory(void *Pointer).
- Corrected an issue with the new IB server-side bracket feature where trailing stop orders were activated before the parent order filled. This is now resolved.
- Corrected an intermittent issue arising in a recent release where when using the CTS T4 trading service, real-time updates of the chart bars may not have occurred after the historical Intraday data was downloaded.
- Added the following option: Global Settings >> General Settings>> Wait for Prior Alert Sound to Finish Before Playing Next Queued Sound .
1172 Release Date: 2014-08-07
- Fixed an issue related to when setting a string into a SCString in an ACSIL data structure. This affected the Time Line study when displaying text on vertical lines.
- Worked on Linear Regression End Channel study to make it consistent with the Linear Regression tool.
- Solved some issues with Spreadsheets and Simple Alerts in the non-CLR version.
- With the new Interactive Brokers server-side bracket feature, when the parent order fills, Sierra Chart will no longer modify the Target and Stop order to maintain the original Attached Order offset settings.
- Corrected a problem with the DTC protocol where the determination of whether bracket orders are supported on the server may not have been correct.
- Low-level improvements with historical data downloading from DTN IQ Feed.
1167 Release Date: 2014-08-02
- In ACSIL the Line Width will now be able to be adjusted to zero for highlight drawings allowing the removal of the outline. Your code will need to be recompiled against version 1167 or higher, and you will need to explicitly set the LineWidth to zero. Example: Tool.LineWidth = 0;.
- For removing text from ACSIL added chart drawing, you will now be able to explicitly set the s_UseTool::Text member to an empty string to cause the label to be removed. Example: Tool.Text = "";.
- Corrected a problem from a recent release when downloading historical Intraday data when using Rithmic through Optimus Futures. If you are missing tick by tick data in the chart, re-download the data with Edit >> Delete All Data and Download.
- Added support for multiple Trade Simulation Mode accounts. Refer to Multiple Trade Simulation Accounts for more information.
- There are now four commands on the Help menu for downloading an updated version of Sierra Chart. There is support for downloading the current version or the prerelease, and for each of these you can download support for the new spreadsheets or the old spreadsheets. Old spreadsheets refers to the spreadsheet functionality provided in the standard version of Sierra Chart all these years. For existing users of the old spreadsheets, we recommend downloading the version that supports the old spreadsheets. The new spreadsheets are nearing completion but not fully ready for existing users.
1166 Release Date: 2014-07-29
- The Trade Stats for Charts tab has been moved from the Trade >> Trade Orders and Positions window to the Trade >> Trade Activity Log.
- There is a new menu command to globally mute all alert sounds: Global Settings >> Mute All Alert Sounds. This command can also be added as a ToolBar button.
- Added server-side bracket order support with Interactive Brokers. To use this feature, enable Global Settings >> General Settings >> Use Server-side OCO and Bracket Orders.
- Added support to download historical Intraday data for unexpired contracts when using the CTS T4 trading service, from the Sierra Chart Historical Data Service. To use this feature, enable Global Settings >> Data/Trade Service Settings >> Allow Support for Sierra Chart Data Feeds. The historical data is in 30 seconds units. Disable this option to download historical Intraday data from the CTS T4 system instead.
1163 Release Date: 2014-07-22
- Corrected a problem arising in the prior release with the handling of IB trading service symbols when getting the non-simulated Trade positions, which would cause some symbols to report a Position of 0 in the Trade Window when there was a nonzero position for the symbol.
- Added an extra layers of safety to ensure an order does not get submitted more than once. This primarily applies to Limit Attached Orders which are being held until touched (feature added in 1161).
*Last modified Wednesday, 19th December, 2018.